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Bestiary

Introduction

While each monster is a unique creature, many possess similar special attacks, defences, and qualities. Unique abilities are described below the monster's stat block. Many abilities common to several monsters appear in the universal monster rules. If a monster's listed special ability does not appear in its description, you'll find it there.

Each monster description in the bestiary is presented in the same format, split into three specific areas: Introduction, Stat Block, and Description.

This section contains rules for using monsters in the game, making up new monsters and modifying existing ones. You can find the list of monsters in the Bestiary Index.

Introduction

Each monster is presented alphabetically. In the case of a group of monsters sharing similar traits (such as outsider races and some animals or vermin), the monster's basic name is listed first.

Stat Block

This is where you'll find all of the information you need to run the monster in an encounter. A stat block is organized as follows. Note that in cases where a line in a stat block has no value, that line is omitted.

Name and CR: The monster's name is presented first, along with its challenge rating (CR) and three icons you can use to quickly identify the creature's role in the game.

Challenge rating is a numerical indication of how dangerous a monster is—the higher the number, the deadlier the creature.

XP: Listed here are the total experience points that PCs earn for defeating the monster.

Race, Class, and Level: Some monsters do not possess racial Hit Dice and are instead defined by their class levels. For these monsters, their race, class, and level appear here. Unless otherwise noted, the first class listed is the class chosen by the monster as its favoured class.

Alignment, Size, and Type: While a monster's size and type remain constant (unless changed by the application of templates or other unusual modifiers), alignment is far more fluid. The alignments listed for each monster in this book represent the norm for those monsters—they can vary as you require them to in order to serve the needs of your campaign. Only in the case of relatively unintelligent monsters (creatures with an Intelligence of 2 or lower are almost never anything other than neutral) and planar monsters (outsiders with alignments other than those listed are unusual and typically outcasts from their kind) is the listed alignment relatively unchangeable.

Init and Senses: The creature's initiative modifier followed by any special senses and its Perception check modifier.

Aura: If the creature has a particular magical or exceptional aura, it is listed here along with its radius from the creature and, as applicable, a save DC to resist the aura's effects.

Defence: The creature's Defence, touch Defence, and flat-footed Defence. The modifiers that generate its Defence are listed parenthetically at the end of this entry.

VP and WP: The creature's Vitality and Wound points, followed by its Hit Dice (including modifiers from Constitution, creature type modifiers, and the Toughness feat). Creatures with PC class levels receive maximum Vitality points

for their first HD, but all other HD rolls are assumed to be average. Fast healing and regeneration values, if any, follow the creature's HD.

DR: Damage reduction from supernatural sources (such as a lycanthrope's DR X/silver), is listed here.

KOT: The knock-out threshold for the creature.

Saving Throws: The creature's Fortitude, Reflex, and Will saves, followed by situational modifiers to those rolls.

Defensive Abilities/Immune/Resist/SR: All of the creature's unusual defensive abilities. Immunities, resistances, and spell resistance are called out separately as necessary.

Weaknesses: All of the creature's unusual weaknesses are listed here.

Speed: The creature's land speed, and additional speeds as necessary for the creature.

Melee: The creature's melee attacks are listed here, with its attack roll modifier listed after the attack's name followed by the damage in parentheses.

Ranged: As Melee above, but for ranged attacks.

Space/Reach: The creature's space and reach—if the creature's space and reach are standard (one 5-foot square and a reach of 5 feet), this line is omitted.

Special Attacks: The creature's special attacks. Full details for these attacks are given at the end of the stat block or in the universal monster rules section.

Spell-Like Abilities: After listing the caster level of the creature's spell-like abilities, this section lists all of the creature's spell-like abilities, organized by how many times per day it can use the abilities. Constant spell-like abilities function at all times but can be dispelled. A creature can reactivate a constant spell-like ability as a swift action.

Spells Known: If the creature can actually cast spells, its caster level is

indicated here followed by the spells it knows.

Ability Scores: The creature's ability scores are listed here. Unless otherwise indicated, a creature's ability scores represent the baseline of its racial modifiers applied to scores of 10 or 11. Creatures with NPC class levels have stats in the standard array (13, 12, 11, 10, 9, 8), while creatures with character class levels have the elite array (15, 14, 13, 12, 10, 8); in both cases, the creature's ability score modifiers are listed at the end of its description.

Base Atk/CMA/CMD: These values give the creature's base attack, its Combat Manoeuvre Attack, and its Combat Manoeuvre Defence score.

Feats: The creature's feats are listed here. A bonus feat is indicated with a superscript “B.”

Skills: The creature's skills are listed here. Racial modifiers to skills are indicated at the end of this entry.

Languages: The languages most commonly spoken by the creature are listed here. For unusual creatures, you can swap out the languages known for other choices as needed. A creature with a higher-than-normal Intelligence score receives the appropriate number of bonus languages.

SQ: Any special qualities possessed by the creature.

Environment: The regions and climates in which the creature is typically encountered are listed here; these often present wider ranges than the icons at the top of the stat block indicate. In this case, the icon listed at the top of the stat block indicates the creature's preferred terrain.

Organization: This lists how the creature is organized, including number ranges as appropriate.

Treasure: The exact value of the creature's treasure depends on if you're running a slow, medium, or fast game, as summarized on Table: Treasure Values per Encounter. In cases where a creature has specific magical gear assigned to it, the assumption is a medium game—if you play a fast or slow game, you'll want to adjust the monster's gear as appropriate. “Standard” treasure indicates the total value of the creature's treasure is that of a CR equal to the average party level, as listed on Table: Treasure Values per Encounter. “Double” or “triple” treasure indicates the creature has double or triple this standard value. “Incidental” indicates the creature has half this standard value, and then only within the confines of its lair. “None” indicates that the creature normally has no treasure (as is typical for an unintelligent creature that has no real lair, although such creatures are often used to guard treasures of varying amounts).

“NPC gear” indicates the monster has treasure as normal for an NPC of a level equal to the monster's CR.

Special Abilities: Finally, any of the creature's more unique special abilities are detailed in full here.

Description

Here you'll find information on how the monster fits into the world, notes on its ecology and society, and other bits of useful lore and flavour that will help you breathe life into the creature when your PCs encounter it. Some monsters have additional sections that cover variant creatures, notes on using the monsters as PCs, methods of constructing the creature, and so on.

Monster Advancement

The following rules allow you to adjust monsters, increasing (or even decreasing) their statistics and abilities while still creating a balanced and fun encounter.

Templates

A template is a set of rules that you apply to a monster to transform it into a

different monster. All templates give precise directions on how to change a monster's statistics to transform it into the new monster.

Acquired Templates: Some templates, like the lich, are the results of a creature's choice and desire to transform. Others, like the ghost template, are the result of an external force acting upon a creature (for example, when a tormented person dies and becomes a ghost). Yet in both cases, the template changed a creature well after its birth or creation—these types are called “acquired templates,” and can be added to a creature at any time during its existence.

Inherited Templates: Some templates, such as the half-dragon and half-fiend

templates, are part of a creature from the beginning of its existence. Creatures are born or created with these templates already in place, and have never known life without them. These types of templates are called “inherited templates.”

Simple Templates

Simple templates can be applied during the game with minimal effort. This makes it easy, for example, to deal with celestial and fiendish creatures conjured summoning rituals.

All simple templates have two categories of changes. The “quick rules” present a fast way to modify die rolls made in play to simulate the template's effects without actually rebuilding the stat block—this method works great for summoned creatures. The “rebuild rules” list the exact changes you make to the base stat block if you have the time to completely rebuild it—this method works best when you have time during game preparation to build full stat blocks. The two methods result in creatures of similar, if not identical, abilities. In some cases, a complete rebuild does unusual things to a creature. For example, the advanced creature template gives and animal too much Intelligence, and a young incorporeal creature is tougher than a normal one.

Advanced Creature (CR +1)

Creatures with the advanced template are fiercer and more powerful than their ordinary cousins.

Quick Rules: +2 on all rolls (including damage rolls) and special ability DCs; +4 to Defence and CMD; +2 hp/HD.

Rebuild Rules: Defence increase natural armor by +2; Ability Scores +4 to all ability scores (except Int scores of 2 or less).

Celestial Creature (CR +0 or +1)

Celestial creatures dwell in the higher planes, but can be summoned using spells such as summon monster and planar ally. A celestial creature's CR increases by +1 only if the base creature has 5 or more HD. A celestial creature's quick and rebuild rules are the same.

Rebuild Rules: Senses:gains darkvision 60 ft.; Defensive Abilities: gains DR and energy resistance as noted on the table; SR: gains SR equal to new CR +5; Special Attacks: smite evil 1/day as a swift action (adds Cha bonus to attack rolls and damage bonus equal to HD against evil foes; smite persists until target is dead or the celestial creature rests).

Celestial Creature Defences
Hit DiceResist Cold, Acid, and ElectricityDR
1–45
5–10105/evil
11+1510/evil

Fiendish Creature (CR +0 or +1)

Creatures with the fiendish template live in the Lower Planes, such as the Abyss and Hell, but can be summoned using spells such as summon monster and planar ally. A fiendish creature's CR increases by +1 only if the base creature has 5 or more HD. A fiendish creature's quick and rebuild rules are the same.

Rebuild Rules: Senses: gains darkvision 60 ft.; Defensive Abilities: gains DR and energy resistance as noted on the table; SR: gains SR equal to new CR +5; Special Attacks: smite good 1/day as a swift action (adds Cha bonus to attack rolls and damage bonus equal to HD against good foes; smite persists until target is dead or the fiendish creature rests).

Fiendish Creature Defences
Hit DiceResist Cold and FireDR
1–45
5–10105/good
11+1510/good

Giant Creature (+1)

Creatures with the giant template are larger and stronger than their normal-sized kin. This template cannot be applied to creatures that are Colossal.

Quick Rules: +2 to all rolls based on Str or Con, +2 hp/HD, –1 penalty on all rolls based on Dex.

Rebuild Rules: Size: increase by one category; Defence: increase natural armor by +3; Attacks: increase dice rolled by 1 step; Ability: Scores +4 size bonus to Str and Con, –2 Dex.

Young Creature (CR –1)

Creatures with the young template are immature specimens of the base creature. You can also use this simple template to easily create a smaller variant of a monster. This template cannot be applied to creatures that increase in power through aging or feeding (such as dragons or barghests) or creatures that are Fine-sized.

Quick Rules: +2 to all Dex-based rolls, –2 to all other rolls, –2 hp/HD.

Rebuild Rules: Size: decrease by one category; Defence: reduce natural armour by –2 (minimum +0); Attacks: decrease damage dice by 1 step; Ability Scores: –4 Strength, –4 Con, +4 size bonus to Dex.

Squad template

When many opponents threaten the heroes, it can be difficult and slow to keep track of all of the enemies. We can relieve some of the problems of running multiple enemies by using squads.

Squads are groups of three to five relatively weak creatures, acting together as a more or less organised group. In these rules, they are treated as one creature of a larger size category, which has more wound points, and is vulnerable to area attacks. The squad takes only one round's worth of actions each round, but all attacks are made at +4 (the squad members are using the Aid Another attack action).

Squad Template (CR +3)

Apply the following changes to a creature's statistics to turn the base creature into a squad.

  • Increase the size category by one step, and apply all new size bonuses and penalties
  • Double the creature's wound points (and vitality, if any)
  • Double the creature's shield's wound points (if any)
  • Add +4 to attacks (the squad is using the Aid Another attack action)
  • Apply the squad traits (see below)
  • CR increases by 3

Squad traits

  • Melee attacks are melee area effects, affecting all threatened squares. Attacks of opportunity by the squad are not melee area effects.
  • Ranged attacks made by the squad have a 5 feet radius splash, dealing the half the damage as the main attack. Defenders check individually against the attack roll of the squad. If the attacking weapon already had a splash effect, the splash radius is increased by 5 feet.
  • The squad may choose not to affect creatures it specifies with its attacks. Thus a squad may make a melee area attack on enemies engaged in melee with its allies, without hitting its allies, or, similarly, make ranged attacks on enemies adjacent to non-combatants without the splash effect hitting the non-combatants.
  • A squad may not be grappled. Other combat manoeuvres effect the whole squad as if it were a single creature (noting the size modifiers for the increased size).
  • Area attacks against a squad deal 50% more damage. This additional damage stacks with metamagic effects that increase damage.
  • Squads are not knocked out, but routed. When damage to a squad would threaten a knock-out on the base creature, a failed save means that the surviving squad members scatter and flee at their maximum movement rate for 1d4 minutes.

Adding Racial Hit Dice

Adding racial Hit Dice to a monster is a similar process to building a monster from scratch. As additional Hit Dice are added, other abilities increase in power as well. Additional Hit Dice usually results in better attack bonuses, saves, hit points, and skills, as well as more feats. It can also include additional spellcasting capability and other powers.

Step 1: Plan the Monster

When advancing a monster by adding racial HD, you should start by deciding what you want the monster to become. In most cases, this means merely a tougher, stronger version of an existing monster. Note the desired CR of the new monster. This is also the point at which you should decide whether the creature is going to increase in size. As a general rule, creatures whose Hit Dice increase by 50% or more should also increase in size, but GMs should feel free to ignore this rule if warranted by the individual creature or situation.

Table: Monster Advancement

Higher CRLower CRWound Point ChangeDefence ChangeAttack Bonus ChangeDamage Change
1Less than 15112–3
215222–3
321011–22–3
4310222–3
541511–23–4
651511–23–5
761511–24–5
871511–24–5
981521–24–5
10915113–5
111015114–5
12111521–24–5
131220114–5
141320113–5
151420114–5
16+15+2011–28–10

Step 2: Add Hit Dice

Next, determine how many Wound or Vitality Points the base monster receives per Hit Die (see Table: Average Die Results for average results based on the die type). Using Table: Monster Advancement, add up all of the values in the Wound Point Change column for each increase using the Higher CR column. For example, if the base monster was CR 3 and the new monster is set to be CR 5, the total would be 25 hit points. Next, add additional Hit Dice to the monster to increase its hit points by the desired amount. Note that if the creature increases in size, its Constitution may also increase, as noted on Table: Size Changes, granting it additional hit points that might offset the need for additional Hit Dice (this also applies to any other Constitution increases).

These values are not absolute. Some monsters have fewer wound points than normal for a creature of their CR and rely on a higher Defence or other defences. Some creatures are primarily spellcasters and typically have fewer Hit Dice. When advancing your monster in this way, be sure to take these factors into account and adjust your monster accordingly.

Table: Size Changes

Old Size*New SizeStrDexConNatural Armour
FineDiminutiveSame–2SameSame
DiminutiveTiny+2–2SameSame
TinySmall+4–2SameSame
SmallMedium+4–2+2Same
MediumLarge+8–2+4+2
LargeHuge+8–2+4+3
HugeGargantuan+8Same+4+4
GargantuanColossal+8Same+4+5

*Repeat the adjustment if the creature moves up more than one size.

Table: Size Bonuses and Penalties

SizeDefence/AttackCMA/CMDFly SkillStealth Skill
Fine+8–8+8+16
Diminutive+4–4+6+12
Tiny+2–2+4+8
Small+1–1+2+4
Medium+0+0+0+0
Large–1+1–2–4
Huge–2+2–4–8
Gargantuan–4+4–6–12
Colossal–8+8–8–16

Step 3: Ability Scores

Once you have determined the number of additional Hit Dice possessed by the creature, use this number to modify its other statistics. Start with ability scores. For every 4 additional Hit Dice gained by the monster, add 1 to one of its ability scores. In addition, make any modifications to its ability scores based on an increase in size, as noted on Table: Size Changes.

Step 4: Skills and Feats

When adding skills, check to see if the creature's Int modifier changed. If it is unchanged, simply multiply the total number of ranks per Hit Dice gained by a monster of its type times the total number of added Hit Dice and add that number of ranks to its existing skills. If its Intelligence modifier has increased, perform the same calculation as if it had not increased and then multiply the change in its Intelligence modifier times its new total number of Hit Dice and add that number of additional ranks as well (adding new skills as needed to spend all of the ranks). If the creature changed size, make sure to adjust its Fly skill and Stealth skill bonuses (if any) as noted on Table: Size Bonuses and Penalties.

Next, give the creature additional feats. Creatures gain one feat at 1 Hit Die and one additional feat for every 2 Hit Dice above 1. Most additional feats should be focused on increasing the creature's combat abilities, but metamagic feats and skill feats are also possible choices depending on the creature's role.

Step 5: Statistics

Next, adjust the creature's derived statistics, such as its initiative, AC, saving throws, melee and ranged attack bonuses, BAB, CMA, and CMD. Adjust any special attacks or qualities that are based on the creature's size, Hit Dice, or ability scores. If the creature changed in size, be sure to adjust its Defence, attack, CMA, and CMD accordingly (as noted on Table: Size Bonuses and Penalties). Table: Monster Advancement also tracks the average change to the creature's Defence, attack rolls, and damage rolls. Add up these values for each step of change between the creature's original and new CR. If the creature changed size, make sure to make changes to its natural armour bonus, as noted on Table: Size Changes. If the creature does not meet these averages, you should consider adjusting its ability scores or Hit Dice to get it closer to the target.

Step 6: Comparison

Finally, compare the new monster's statistics to those presented on Table: Monster Statistics by CR for a creature of its adjusted CR. Note that if the original creature deviated from these values, the new one should do so in a similar fashion. For example, if the original creature had higher than normal hit points but a lower than normal CR, the creature should maintain that balance at a higher CR (even though its hit points and AC both increased).

Adding Class Levels

Of all the methods of advancing a monster, adding class levels requires the most adjudication and careful comparison. Some classes truly add to the power and abilities of some monster types, while others do not. For example, adding levels of barbarian to a hill giant can be a great addition, whereas adding levels of sorcerer is less useful. When adding class levels to a creature, take the following three steps.

Step 1: Determine Creature's Role

When adding class levels to a creature, the first step is to determine what role the base creature fulfils. There are three basic roles into which a creature might fall. A creature can fall into more than one role if its abilities are diverse.

Combat: This creature is designed to be good at melee or ranged combat with a weapon or its natural weapons. In either case, these monsters have a number of feats and abilities to enhance their combat prowess (or are good simply by nature of their Hit Dice and ability scores). If a creature does not possess many spells, special abilities, or skills, it is a combat monster.

Most animals, constructs, dragons, humanoids, magical beasts, monstrous humanoids, plants, and vermin fall into this role, as do some creatures of all the other types.

Spell: Spell creatures possess a large number of spells that allow them to attack or harass their enemies. These creatures usually have lower hit points and relatively weak attacks as compared to the averages for creatures of their CR. Note that creatures that only possess spell-like abilities do not fall into this role, and are usually considered combat or special.

Most dragons and outsiders fall into this role, but any creature that has a list of spells prepared or spells known likely falls under this heading as well.

Skill: Creatures of this type rely on skills (usually Stealth) to ambush or take down their prey. This also includes creatures who take advantage of the environment or spells, such as fog or invisibility.

Some aberrations, fey, magical beasts, monstrous humanoids, and outsiders fall into this role.

Special: Creatures that do not fall into any of the other categories usually rely on special abilities and powers to attack their foes. They might be tough or dangerous in physical combat, but the threat is greatly increased by their special abilities.

Step 2: Add Class Levels

Once you have determined the creature's role, it's time to add class levels. The first step of this process is to modify the creature's ability scores. Creatures with class levels receive +4, +4, +2, +2, +0, and –2 adjustments to their ability scores, assigned in a manner that enhances their class abilities. Creatures with NPC class levels do not receive adjustments to their ability scores.

Next, add the class levels to the monster, making all of the necessary additions to its HD, hit points, BAB, CMA, CMD, feats, skills, spells, and class features. If the creature possesses class features (such as spellcasting or sneak attack) for the class that is being added, these abilities stack. This functions just like adding class levels to a character without racial Hit Dice.

A monster with class levels always possesses treasure equal to an NPC of a level equal to the monster's final CR (as calculated in Step 3, below). To determine the value of this gear, use the value listed for a heroic NPC of that level, as listed in Table: NPC Gear. Once a total GP value is determined, follow the rules for outfitting an NPC as outlined in that section. Gear should help a monster with class levels remain challenging and retain statistics close to those presented on Table 1-1: Monster Statistics by CR.

Step 3: Determine CR

Determining the final CR for a creature with class levels requires careful consideration. While adding a class level to a monster that stacks with its existing abilities and role generally adds 1 to its CR for each level taken, adding classes that do not stack is more complicated.

Table: Monsters with Class Levels gives general guidelines regarding which core classes add directly to a monster's abilities based on its role. Classes that are marked “key” generally add 1 to a creature's CR for each level added. Classes marked with a “—” increase a creature's CR by 1 for every 2 class levels added until the number of levels added are equal to (or exceed) the creature's original CR, at which point they are treated as “key” levels (adding 1 to the creature's CR for each level added). Creatures that fall into multiple roles treat a class as key if either of its roles treat the class as key. Note that levels in NPC classes are never considered key.

Creature Types

Each creature has one type, which broadly defines its abilities. Some creatures also have one or more subtypes, as described below. A creature cannot violate the rules of its subtype without a special ability or quality to explain the difference — templates can often change a creature's type drastically.

Base Wound Points and Hit Dice

All creatures have a base number of Wound points equal to their Constitution score, multiplied by a size factor, as per Table: Base WP by Size. This base counts as 1 HD for the purposes of calculating saving throws, Base Attack Bonus and other statistics determined by Hit Dice.

Table: Base WP by Size

SizeBase WP multiplier
Fine1/8
Diminutive1/4
Tiny1/2
Small fragile*3/4
Small1
Medium1
Large1
Large tough*1 1/2
Huge2
Gargantuan4
Colossal8

*Fragile and tough creatures: A small creature with combined racial penalties to its Constitution and Strength score of more than -4 is considered fragile. A large creature with a combined racial bonus to its Constitution and Strength scores of greater than +8 is considered tough.

Aberration

An aberration has a bizarre anatomy, strange abilities, an alien mindset, or any combination of the three. An aberration has the following features.

* d8 Hit Die. Divide all HD between WP and VP. The first HD is always VP.

* Base attack bonus equal to 3/4 total Hit Dice (medium progression).

* Good Will saves.

* Skill points equal to 4 + Int modifier (minimum 1) per Hit Die. The following are class skills for aberrations: Acrobatics, Climb, Escape Artist, Fly, Intimidate, Knowledge (pick one), Perception, Spellcraft, Stealth, Survival, and Swim.

Traits: An aberration possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Darkvision 60 feet.

* Proficient with its natural weapons. If generally humanoid in form, proficient with all simple weapons and any weapon it is described as using.

* Proficient with whatever type of armour (light, medium, or heavy) it is described as wearing, as well as all lighter types. Aberrations not indicated as wearing armour are not proficient with armour. Aberrations are proficient with shields if they are proficient with any form of armour.

* Aberrations breathe, eat, and sleep.

Animal

An animal is a living, nonhuman creature, usually a vertebrate with no magical abilities and no innate capacity for language or culture. Animals usually have additional information on how they can serve as companions. An animal has the following features (unless otherwise noted).

* d8 Hit Die. All HD are WP.

* Base attack bonus equal to 3/4 total Hit Dice (medium progression).

* Good Fortitude and Reflex saves.

* Skill points equal to 2 + Int modifier (minimum 1) per Hit Die. The following are class skills for animals: Acrobatics, Climb, Fly, Perception, Stealth, and Swim.

Traits: An animal possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Intelligence score of 1 or 2 (no creature with an Intelligence score of 3 or higher can be an animal).

* Low-light vision.

* Alignment: Always neutral.

* Treasure: None.

* Proficient with its natural weapons only. A noncombative herbivore treats its natural weapons as secondary attacks. Such attacks are made with a –5 penalty on the creature's attack rolls, and the animal receives only 1/2 its Strength modifier as a damage adjustment.

* Proficient with no armour unless trained for war.

* Animals breathe, eat, and sleep.

Construct

A construct is an animated object or artificially created creature. A construct has the following features.

* d10 Hit Die. All HD are WP. A construct's base WP are calculated by multiplying the average result of their HD (5.5), instead of their Constitution score.

* Base attack bonus equal to total Hit Dice (fast progression).

* No good saving throws.

* Skill points equal to 2 + Int modifier (minimum 1) per Hit Die. However, most constructs are mindless and gain no skill points or feats. Constructs do not have any class skills, regardless of their Intelligence scores.

Traits: A construct possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* No Constitution score. Any DCs or other statistics that rely on a Constitution score treat a construct as having a score of 10 (no bonus or penalty).

* Low-light vision.

* Darkvision 60 feet.

* Immunity to all mind-affecting effects (charms, compulsions, morale effects, patterns, and phantasms).

* Immunity to bleed, disease, death effects, necromancy effects, paralysis, poison, sleep effects, and stunning.

* Cannot heal damage on its own, but often can be repaired via exposure to a certain kind of effect (see the creature's description for details) or through the use of the Craft Construct feat. Constructs can also be healed through spells such as make whole. A construct with the fast healing special quality still benefits from that quality.

* Not subject to ability damage, ability drain, fatigue, exhaustion, energy drain, or nonlethal damage.

* Immunity to any effect that requires a Fortitude save (unless the effect also works on objects, or is harmless).

* Not at risk of death from massive damage. Immediately destroyed when reduced to 0 hit points or less.

* A construct cannot be raised or resurrected.

* A construct is hard to destroy, and gains bonus wound points based on size, as shown on the following table.

Construct SizeBonus Wound Points
Fine
Diminutive
Tiny
Small10
Medium20
Large30
Huge40
Gargantuan60
Colossal80

* Proficient with its natural weapons only, unless generally humanoid in form, in which case proficient with any weapon mentioned in its entry.

* Proficient with no armour.

* Constructs do not breathe, eat, or sleep.

Dragon

A dragon is a reptile-like creature, usually winged, with magical or unusual abilities. A dragon has the following features.

* d12 Hit Die. Divide all HD between WP and VP. The first HD is always VP.

* Base attack bonus equal to total Hit Dice (fast progression).

* Good Fortitude, Reflex, and Will saves.

* Skill points equal to 6 + Int modifier (minimum 1) per Hit Die. The following are class skills for dragons: Appraise, Bluff, Climb, Craft, Diplomacy, Fly, Heal, Intimidate, Knowledge (all), Linguistics, Perception, Sense Motive, Spellcraft, Stealth, Survival, Swim, and Use Magic Device.

Traits: A dragon possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Darkvision 60 feet and low-light vision.

* Immunity to magic sleep effects and paralysis effects.

* Proficient with its natural weapons only unless humanoid in form (or capable of assuming humanoid form), in which case proficient with all simple weapons and any weapons mentioned in its entry.

* Proficient with no armour.

* Dragons breathe, eat, and sleep.

Fey

A fey is a creature with supernatural abilities and connections to nature or to some other force or place. Fey are usually human-shaped.

Some fey with 1 Hit Die (typically weakly magical creatures, such as the common goblin, and redcap) exchange the features of their fey Hit Die for the class features of a PC or NPC class. Fey of this sort are typically presented as 1st-level fighters, which means they have average combat ability and poor saving throws. Highly magical fey, and fey with more than 1 Hit Die always make use of the features of the fey type.

A fey has the following features.

* d6 Hit Die. All HD are VP

* Base attack bonus equal to 1/2 total Hit Dice (slow progression).

* Good Reflex and Will saves.

* Skill points equal to 6 + Int modifier (minimum 1) per Hit Die. The following are class skills for fey: Acrobatics, Bluff, Climb, Craft, Diplomacy, Disguise, Escape Artist, Fly, Knowledge (geography), Knowledge (local), Knowledge (nature), Perception, Perform, Sense Motive, Sleight of Hand, Stealth, Swim, Use Magic Device.

Traits: A fey possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Low-light vision.

* Proficient with all simple weapons and any weapons mentioned in its entry.

* Proficient with whatever type of armour (light, medium, or heavy) it is described as wearing, as well as all lighter types. Fey not indicated as wearing armour are not proficient with armour. Fey are proficient with shields if they are proficient with any form of armour.

* Fey breathe, eat, and sleep.

Humanoid

A humanoid usually has two arms, two legs, and one head, or a human-like torso, arms, and a head. Humanoids have few or no supernatural or extraordinary abilities, but most can speak and usually have well-developed societies. They are usually Small or Medium (with the exception of giants). Every humanoid creature also has a specific subtype to match its race, such as human, giant, reptilian, or tengu.

Humanoids with 1 Hit Die exchange the features of their humanoid Hit Die for the class features of a PC or NPC class. Humanoids of this sort are typically presented as 1st-level fighters, which means they have average combat ability and poor saving throws. Humanoids with more than 1 Hit Die are the only humanoids who make use of the features of the humanoid type. A humanoid has the following features (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* d8 Hit Die, or by character class. All HD are WP, unless by character class.

* Base attack bonus equal to 3/4 total Hit Dice (medium progression).

* One good save, usually Reflex.

* Skill points equal to 2 + Int modifier (minimum 1) per Hit Die or by character class. The following are class skills for humanoids without a character class: Climb, Craft, Handle Animal, Heal, Profession, Ride, and Survival. Humanoids with a character class use their class's skill list instead. Humanoids with both a character class and racial HD add these skill sto their list of class skills.

Traits: A humanoid possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Proficient with all simple weapons, or by character class.

* Proficient with whatever type of armour (light, medium, or heavy) it is described as wearing, or by character class. If a humanoid does not have a class and wears armour, it is proficient with that type of armour and all lighter types. Humanoids not indicated as wearing armour are not proficient with armour. Humanoids are proficient with shields if they are proficient with any form of armour.

* Humanoids breathe, eat, and sleep.

Magical Beast

Magical beasts are similar to animals but can have Intelligence scores higher than 2 (in which case the magical beast knows at least one language, but can't necessarily speak). Magical beasts usually have supernatural or extraordinary abilities, but are sometimes merely bizarre in appearance or habits. A magical beast has the following features.

* d10 Hit Die. All HD are WP.

* Base attack bonus equal to total Hit Dice (fast progression).

* Good Fortitude and Reflex saves.

* Skill points equal to 2 + Int modifier (minimum 1) per Hit Die. The following are class skills for magical beasts: Acrobatics, Climb, Fly, Perception, Stealth, Swim.

Traits: A magical beast possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Darkvision 60 feet.

* Low-light vision.

* Proficient with its natural weapons only.

* Proficient with no armour.

* Magical beasts breathe, eat, and sleep.

Monstrous Humanoid

Monstrous humanoids are similar to humanoids, but with monstrous or animalistic features. They often have magical abilities as well. A monstrous humanoid has the following features.

* d10 Hit Die. Divide all HD between WP and VP. The first HD is always VP.

* Base attack bonus equal to total Hit Dice (fast progression).

* Good Reflex and Will saves.

* Skill points equal to 4 + Int modifier (minimum 1) per Hit Die. The following are class skills for monstrous humanoids: Climb, Craft, Fly, Intimidate, Perception, Ride, Stealth, Survival, and Swim.

Traits: A monstrous humanoid possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Darkvision 60 feet.

* Proficient with all simple weapons and any weapons mentioned in its entry.

* Proficient with whatever type of armour (light, medium, or heavy) it is described as wearing, as well as all lighter types. Monstrous humanoids not indicated as wearing armour are not proficient with armour. Monstrous humanoids are proficient with shields if they are proficient with any form of armour.

* Monstrous humanoids breathe, eat, and sleep.

Ooze

An ooze is an amorphous or mutable creature, usually mindless. An ooze has the following features.

* d8 Hit Die. All HD are WP

* Base attack bonus equal to 3/4 total Hit Dice (medium progression).

* No good saving throws.

* Skill points equal to 2 + Int modifier (minimum 1) per Hit Die. However, most oozes are mindless and gain no skill points or feats. Oozes do not have any class skills.

Traits: An ooze possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Mindless: No Intelligence score, and immunity to all mind-affecting effects (charms, compulsions, phantasms, patterns, and morale effects). An ooze with an Intelligence score loses this trait.

* Blind (but have the blindsight special quality), with immunity to gaze attacks, visual effects, illusions, and other attack forms that rely on sight.

* Immunity to poison, sleep effects, paralysis, polymorph, and stunning.

* Some oozes have the ability to deal acid damage to objects.

* Not subject to critical hits or flanking. Does not take additional damage from precision-based attacks, such as sneak attack.

* Proficient with its natural weapons only.

* Proficient with no armour.

* Oozes eat and breathe, but do not sleep.

Outsider

An outsider is at least partially composed of the essence (but not necessarily the material) of some plane other than the Material Plane. Some creatures start out as some other type and become outsiders when they attain a higher (or lower) state of spiritual existence. An outsider has the following features.

  • d10 Hit Dice. Divide all HD between WP and VP. The first HD is always VP.
  • Base attack bonus equal to total Hit Dice (fast progression).
  • Two good saving throws, usually Reflex and Will.
  • Skill points equal to 6 + Int modifier (minimum 1) per Hit Die. The following are class skills for outsiders: Bluff, Craft, Knowledge (planes), Perception, Sense Motive, and Stealth. Due to their varied nature, outsiders also receive 4 additional class skills determined by the creature's theme.

Traits: An outsider possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

  • Darkvision 60 feet.
  • Unlike most living creatures, an outsider does not have a dual nature—its soul and body form one unit. When an outsider is slain, no soul is set loose. Spells or rituals that restore souls to their bodies don't work on an outsider.
  • Proficient with all simple and martial weapons and any weapons mentioned in its entry.
  • Proficient with whatever type of armour (light, medium, or heavy) it is described as wearing, as well as all lighter types. Outsiders not indicated as wearing armour are not proficient with armour. Outsiders are proficient with shields if they are proficient with any form of armour.
  • Outsiders breathe, but do not need to eat or sleep (although they can do so if they wish). Native outsiders breathe, eat, and sleep.
  • Outsiders are not knocked out by damage - when damage exceed their Knock-Out Threshold, they are instead Staggered for 1 round if they fail the Knock-Out save
  • Outsiders who are Spellcasters, or have Domain Power feats may use the Outsider domain.

Plant

This type comprises vegetable creatures. Note that regular plants, such as one finds growing in gardens and fields, lack Wisdom and Charisma scores and are not creatures, but objects, even though they are alive. A plant creature has the following features.

* d8 Hit Die. All HD are WP.

* Base attack bonus equal to 3/4 total Hit Dice (medium progression).

* Good Fortitude saves.

* Skill points equal to 2 + Int modifier (minimum 1) per Hit Die. Some plant creatures, however, are mindless and gain no skill points or feats. The following are class skills for plants: Perception and Stealth.

Traits: A plant creature possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Low-light vision.

* Immunity to all mind-affecting effects (charms, compulsions, morale effects, patterns, and phantasms).

* Immunity to paralysis, poison, polymorph, sleep effects, and stunning.

* Proficient with its natural weapons only.

* Not proficient with armour.

* Plants breathe and eat, but do not sleep.

Undead

Undead are once-living creatures animated by spiritual or supernatural forces. An undead creature has the following features.

* d8 Hit Die. All HD are WP. An undead's base WP are calculated from their Charisma score, instead of their Constitution score.

* Base attack bonus equal to 3/4 total Hit Dice (medium progression).

* Good Will saves.

* Skill points equal to 4 + Int modifier (minimum 1) per Hit Die. Many undead, however, are mindless and gain no skill points or feats. The following are class skills for undead: Climb, Disguise, Fly, Intimidate, Knowledge (arcana), Knowledge (religion), Perception, Sense Motive, Spellcraft, and Stealth.

Traits: An undead creature possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* No Constitution score. Undead use their Charisma score in place of their Constitution score when calculating hit points, Fortitude saves, and any special ability that relies on Constitution (such as when calculating a breath weapon's DC).

* Darkvision 60 feet.

* Immunity to all mind-affecting effects (charms, compulsions, morale effects, patterns, and phantasms).

* Immunity to bleed, death effects, disease, paralysis, poison, sleep effects, and stunning.

* Not subject to nonlethal damage, ability drain, or energy drain. Immune to damage to its physical ability scores (Constitution, Dexterity, and Strength), as well as to exhaustion and fatigue effects.

* Cannot heal damage on its own if it has no Intelligence score, although it can be healed. Negative energy (such as an inflict spell) can heal undead creatures. The fast healing special quality works regardless of the creature's Intelligence score.

* Immunity to any effect that requires a Fortitude save (unless the effect also works on objects or is harmless).

* Not at risk of death from massive damage, but is immediately destroyed when reduced to 0 wound points.

* Not affected by raise dead and reincarnate spells or abilities. Resurrection and true resurrection can affect undead creatures. These spells turn undead creatures back into the living creatures they were before becoming undead.

* Proficient with its natural weapons, all simple weapons, and any weapons mentioned in its entry.

* Proficient with whatever type of armour (light, medium, or heavy) it is described as wearing, as well as all lighter types. Undead not indicated as wearing armour are not proficient with armour. Undead are proficient with shields if they are proficient with any form of armour.

* Undead do not breathe, eat, or sleep.

Vermin

This type includes insects, arachnids, other arthropods, worms, and similar invertebrates. Vermin have the following features.

* d8 Hit Die. All HD are WP

* Base attack bonus equal to 3/4 total Hit Dice (medium progression).

* Good Fortitude saves.

* Skill points equal to 2 + Int modifier (minimum 1) per Hit Die. Most vermin, however, are mindless and gain no skill points or feats. Vermin have no class skills.

Traits: Vermin possess the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Mindless: No Intelligence score, and immunity to all mind-affecting effects (charms, compulsions, morale effects, patterns, and phantasms). A vermin-like creature with an Intelligence score is usually either an animal or a magical beast, depending on its other abilities.

* Darkvision 60 feet.

* Proficient with its natural weapons only.

* Proficient with no armour.

* Vermin breathe, eat, and sleep.

Creature SubTypes

Some creatures have one or more subtypes. Subtypes add additional abilities and qualities to a creature.

Air Subtype: This subtype is usually used for outsiders with a connection to the Elemental Plane of Air. Air creatures always have fly speeds and usually have perfect manoeuvrability. Air creatures treat Fly as a class skill.

Angel Subtype: Angels are a race of celestials, or good outsiders, native to the good-aligned outer planes. An angel possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Darkvision 60 feet and low-light vision.

* Immunity to acid, cold, and petrification.

* Resistance to electricity 10 and fire 10.

* +4 racial bonus on saves against poison.

* Protective Aura (Su) Against attacks made or effects created by evil creatures, this ability provides a +4 deflection bonus to Defence and a +4 resistance bonus on saving throws to anyone within 20 feet of the angel. Otherwise, it functions as a magic circle against evil effect and a lesser globe of invulnerability, both with a radius of 20 feet (caster level equals angel's HD). The defensive benefits from the circle are not included in an angel's statistics block.

* Truespeech (Su) All angels can speak with any creature that has a language, as though using a tongues spell (caster level equal to angel's Hit Dice). This ability is always active.

Aquatic Subtype: These creatures always have swim speeds and can move in water without making Swim checks. An aquatic creature can breathe water. It cannot breathe air unless it has the amphibious special quality. Aquatic creatures always treat Swim as a class skill.

Archon Subtype: Archons are a race of celestials, or good outsiders, native to lawful good-aligned outer planes. An archon possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Darkvision 60 feet and low-light vision.

* Aura of Menace (Su) A righteous aura surrounds archons that fight or get angry. Any hostile creature within a 20-foot radius of an archon must succeed on a Will save to resist its effects. The save DC varies with the type of archon, is Charisma-based, and includes a +2 racial bonus. Those who fail take a –2 penalty on attacks, Defence, and saves for 24 hours or until they successfully hit the archon that generated the aura. A creature that has resisted or broken the effect cannot be affected again by the same archon's aura for 24 hours.

* Immunity to electricity and petrification.

* +4 racial bonus on saves against poison.

* Truespeech (Su) All archons can speak with any creature that has a language, as though using a tongues spell (caster level 14th). This ability is always active.

Augmented Subtype: A creature receives this subtype when something (usually a template) changes its original type. Some creatures (those with an inherited template) are born with this subtype; others acquire it when they take on an acquired template. The augmented subtype is always paired with the creature's original type.

Azata Subtype: Azatas are a race of celestials, or good outsiders, native to chaotic good-aligned outer planes. An azata possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Darkvision 60 feet and low-light vision.

* Immunity to electricity and petrification.

* Resistance to cold 10 and fire 10.

* Truespeech (Su) All azatas can speak with any creature that has a language, as though using a tongues spell (caster level 14th). This ability is always active.

Chaotic Subtype: This subtype is usually applied to outsiders native to the chaotically aligned outer planes. Most creatures that have this subtype also have chaotic alignments; however, if their alignments change they still retain the subtype. Any effect that depends on alignment affects a creature with this subtype as if the creature had a chaotic alignment, no matter what its alignment actually is. The creature also suffers effects according to its actual alignment. A creature with the chaotic subtype overcomes damage reduction as if its natural weapons and any weapons it wields are chaotically aligned (see Damage Reduction).

Cold Subtype: A creature with the cold subtype has immunity to cold and vulnerability to fire.

Demon Subtype: Demons are chaotic evil outsiders that call the Abyss their home. Demons possess a particular suite of traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry) as summarized here.

* Immunity to electricity and poison.

* Resistance to acid 10, cold 10, and fire 10.

* Summon (Sp) Demons share the ability to summon others of their kind, typically another of their type or a small number of less powerful demons.

* Telepathy.

* Except where otherwise noted, demons speak Abyssal, Celestial, and Draconic.

* A demon's natural weapons, as well as any weapon it wields, is treated as chaotic and evil for the purpose of resolving damage reduction

Devil Subtype: Devils are lawful evil outsiders that hail from the plane of Hell. Devils possess a particular suite of traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Immunity to fire and poison.

* Resistance to acid 10 and cold 10.

* See in Darkness (Su) Some devils can see perfectly in darkness of any kind, even that created by a deeper darkness spell.

* Summon (Sp) Devils share the ability to summon others of their kind, typically another of their type or a small number of less-powerful devils.

* Telepathy.

* Except when otherwise noted, devils speak Celestial, Draconic, and Infernal.

* A devil's natural weapons, as well as any weapons it wields, are treated as lawful and evil for the purpose of resolving damage reduction.

Dwarf Subtype: This subtype is applied to dwarves and creatures related to dwarves. Creatures with the dwarf subtype have darkvision 60 feet.

Earth Subtype: This subtype is usually used for outsiders with a connection to the Elemental Plane of Earth. Earth creatures usually have burrow speeds, and most earth creatures can burrow through solid rock. Earth creatures with a burrow speed possess tremorsense.

Elemental Subtype: An elemental is a being composed entirely from one of the four classical elements: air, earth, fire, or water. An elemental has the following features.

* Immunity to bleed, paralysis, poison, sleep effects, and stunning.

* Not subject to critical hits or flanking. Does not take additional damage from precision-based attacks, such as sneak attack or weapon skill.

* Proficient with natural weapons only, unless generally humanoid in form, in which case proficient with all simple weapons and any weapons mentioned in its entry.

* Proficient with whatever type of armour (light, medium, or heavy) it is described as wearing, as well as all lighter types. Elementals not indicated as wearing armour are not proficient with armour. Elementals are proficient with shields if they are proficient with any form of armour.

* Elementals do not breathe, eat, or sleep.

Elf Subtype: This subtype is applied to elves and creatures related to elves. Creatures with the elf subtype have low-light vision.

Evil Subtype: This subtype is usually applied to outsiders native to the evil-aligned outer planes. Evil outsiders are also called fiends. Most creatures that have this subtype also have evil alignments; however, if their alignments change, they still retain the subtype. Any effect that depends on alignment affects a creature with this subtype as if the creature has an evil alignment, no matter what its alignment actually is. The creature also suffers effects according to its actual alignment. A creature with the evil subtype overcomes damage reduction as if its natural weapons and any weapons it wields are evil-aligned (see Damage Reduction).

Extraplanar Subtype: This subtype is applied to any creature when it is on a plane other than its native plane. A creature that travels the planes can gain or lose this subtype as it goes from plane to plane. Monster entries assume that encounters with creatures take place on the Material Plane, and every creature whose native plane is not the Material Plane has the extraplanar subtype (but would not have it when on its home plane). Every extraplanar creature in this book has a home plane mentioned in its description. Creatures not labelled as extraplanar are natives of the Material Plane, and they gain the extraplanar subtype if they leave the Material Plane. No creature has the extraplanar subtype when it is on a transitive plane, such as the Astral Plane, the Ethereal Plane, or the Plane of Shadow.

Fire Subtype: A creature with the fire subtype has immunity to fire and vulnerability to cold.

Giant Subtype: A giant is a humanoid creature of great strength, usually of at least Large size. Giants have a number of racial Hit Dice and never substitute such Hit Dice for class levels like some humanoids. Giants have low-light vision, and treat Intimidate and Perception as class skills.

Goblinoid Subtype: Goblinoids are stealthy humanoids who live by hunting and raiding and who all speak Goblin. Goblinoids treat Stealth as a class skill.

Good Subtype: This subtype is usually applied to outsiders native to the good-aligned outer planes. Most creatures that have this subtype also have good alignments; however, if their alignments change, they still retain the subtype. Any effect that depends on alignment affects a creature with this subtype as if the creature has a good alignment, no matter what its alignment actually is. The creature also suffers effects according to its actual alignment. A creature with the good subtype overcomes damage reduction as if its natural weapons and any weapons it wields are good-aligned (see Damage Reduction).

Halfling Subtype: This subtype is applied to halflings and creatures related to halflings.

Human Subtype: This subtype is applied to humans and creatures related to humans.

Incorporeal Subtype: An incorporeal creature has no physical body. An incorporeal creature is immune to critical hits and precision-based damage (such as sneak attack damage) unless the attacks are made using a weapon with the ghost touch special weapon quality. In addition, creatures with the incorporeal subtype gain the incorporeal special quality.

Lawful Subtype: This subtype is usually applied to outsiders native to the lawfully aligned outer planes. Most creatures that have this subtype also have lawful alignments; however, if their alignments change, they still retain the subtype. Any effect that depends on alignment affects a creature with this subtype as if the creature had a lawful alignment, no matter what its alignment actually is. The creature also suffers effects according to its actual alignment. A creature with the lawful subtype overcomes damage reduction as if its natural weapons and any weapons it wields are lawfully aligned (see Damage Reduction, page 299).

Native Subtype: This subtype is applied only to outsiders. These creatures have mortal ancestors or a strong connection to the Material Plane and can be raised, reincarnated, or resurrected just as other living creatures can be. Creatures with this subtype are native to the Material Plane. Unlike true outsiders, native outsiders need to eat and sleep.

Orc Subtype: This subtype is applied to orcs and creatures related to orcs, such as half-orcs. Creatures with the orc subtype have darkvision 60 feet and light sensitivity (half-orcs do not have light sensitivity).

Reptilian Subtype: These creatures are scaly and usually cold-blooded. The reptilian subtype is only used to describe a set of humanoid races, not all animals and monsters that are true reptiles.

Shapechanger Subtype: A shapechanger has the supernatural ability to assume one or more alternate forms. Many magical effects allow some kind of shapeshifting, and not every creature that can change shapes has the shapechanger subtype. A shapechanger possesses the following traits (unless otherwise noted in a creature's entry).

* Proficient with its natural weapons, with simple weapons, and with any weapons mentioned in the creature's description.

* Proficient with any armour mentioned in the creature's description, as well as all lighter forms. If no form of armour is mentioned, the shapechanger is not proficient with armour. A shapechanger is proficient with shields if it is proficient with any type of armour.

Swarm Subtype: A swarm is a collection of Fine, Diminutive, or Tiny creatures that acts as a single creature. A swarm has the characteristics of its type, except as noted here. A swarm has a single pool of Hit Dice and hit points, a single initiative modifier, a single speed, and a single Defence. A swarm makes saving throws as a single creature. A single swarm occupies a square (if it is made up of nonflying creatures) or a cube (of flying creatures) 10 feet on a side, but its reach is 0 feet, like its component creatures. In order to attack, it moves into an opponent's space, which provokes an attack of opportunity. It can occupy the same space as a creature of any size, since it crawls all over its prey. A swarm can move through squares occupied by enemies and vice versa without impediment, although the swarm provokes an attack of opportunity if it does so. A swarm can move through cracks or holes large enough for its component creatures.

A swarm of Tiny creatures consists of 300 nonflying creatures or 1,000 flying creatures. A swarm of Diminutive creatures consists of 1,500 nonflying creatures or 5,000 flying creatures. A swarm of Fine creatures consists of 10,000 creatures, whether they are flying or not. Swarms of nonflying creatures include many more creatures than could normally fit in a 10-foot square based on their normal space, because creatures in a swarm are packed tightly together and generally crawl over each other and their prey when moving or attacking. Larger swarms are represented by multiples of single swarms. The area occupied by a large swarm is completely shapeable, though the swarm usually remains in contiguous squares.

* Swarm Traits: A swarm has no clear front or back and no discernable anatomy, so it is not subject to critical hits or flanking. A swarm made up of Tiny creatures takes half damage from slashing and piercing weapons. A swarm composed of Fine or Diminutive creatures is immune to all weapon damage. Reducing a swarm to 0 hit points or less causes it to break up, though damage taken until that point does not degrade its ability to attack or resist attack. Swarms are never staggered or reduced to a dying state by damage. Also, they cannot be tripped, grappled, or bull rushed, and they cannot grapple an opponent.

* A swarm is immune to any spell or effect that targets a specific number of creatures (including single-target spells such as disintegrate), with the exception of mind-affecting effects (charms, compulsions, morale effects, patterns, and phantasms) if the swarm has an Intelligence score and a hive mind. A swarm takes half again as much damage (+50%) from spells or effects that affect an area, such as splash weapons and many evocation spells.

* Swarms made up of Diminutive or Fine creatures are susceptible to high winds, such as those created by a gust of wind spell. For purposes of determining the effects of wind on a swarm, treat the swarm as a creature of the same size as its constituent creatures. A swarm rendered unconscious by means of nonlethal damage becomes disorganized and dispersed, and does not reform until its hit points exceed its nonlethal damage.

* Swarm Attack: Creatures with the swarm subtype don't make standard melee attacks. Instead, they deal automatic damage to any creature whose space they occupy at the end of their move, with no attack roll needed. Swarm attacks are not subject to a miss chance for concealment or cover. A swarm's statistics block has “swarm” in the Melee entry, with no attack bonus given. The amount of damage a swarm deals is based on its Hit Dice, as shown below.

Swarm HDSwarm Base Damage
1–51d6
6–102d6
11–153d6
16–204d6
21 or more5d6

* A swarm's attacks are nonmagical, unless the swarm's description states otherwise. Damage reduction sufficient to reduce a swarm attack's damage to 0, being incorporeal, or other special abilities usually give a creature immunity (or at least resistance) to damage from a swarm. Some swarms also have acid, blood drain, poison, or other special attacks in addition to normal damage.

* Swarms do not threaten creatures, and do not make attacks of opportunity with their swarm attack. However, they distract foes whose squares they occupy, as described below.

* Swarms possess the distraction universal monster rule. Spellcasting or concentrating on spells within the area of a swarm requires a caster level check (DC 20 + spell level). Using skills that involve patience and concentration requires a DC 20 Will save.

Water Subtype: This subtype is usually used for outsiders with a connection to the Elemental Plane of Water. Creatures with the water subtype always have swim speeds and can move in water without making Swim checks. A water creature can breathe underwater and can usually breathe air as well. Water creatures treat the Swim skill as a class skill.

Universal Monster Rules

The following rules are standard and are referenced (but not repeated) in monster stat blocks. Each rule includes a format guide for how it appears in a monster's listing and its location in the stat block.

Ability Damage and Drain (Ex or Su): Some attacks or special abilities cause ability damage or drain, reducing the designated ability score by the listed amount. While ability damage can be healed naturally, ability drain is permanent and can only be restored through magic.

Format: 1d4 Str drain; Location: Special Attacks and individual attacks.

Amphibious (Ex): Creatures with this special quality have the aquatic subtype, but they can survive indefinitely on land.

Format: amphibious; Location: Special Qualities.

Bleed (Ex): A creature with this ability causes wounds that continue to bleed, inflicting Wound damage each round at the start of the affected creature's turn. This bleeding can be stopped by a successful DC 15 Heal skill check or through the application of any magical healing. The amount of damage each round is determined in the creature's entry. As with all Wound damage, bleeding forces the target to make a Fortitude save to avoid knock out.

Format: bleed (2d6); Location: Special Attacks and individual attacks.

Blindsense (Ex): Using nonvisual senses, such as acute smell or hearing, a creature with blindsense notices things it cannot see. The creature usually does not need to make Perception checks to pinpoint the location of a creature within range of its blindsense ability, provided that it has line of effect to that creature. Any opponent the creature cannot see still has total concealment against the creature with blindsense, and the creature still has the normal miss chance when attacking foes that have concealment. Visibility still affects the movement of a creature with blindsense. A creature with blindsense is still denied its Dexterity bonus to Defence against attacks from creatures it cannot see.

Format: blindsense 60 ft.; Location: Senses.

Blindsight (Ex): This ability is similar to blindsense, but is far more discerning. Using nonvisual senses, such as sensitivity to vibrations, keen smell, acute hearing, or echolocation, a creature with blindsight maneuvers and fights as well as a sighted creature. Invisibility, darkness, and most kinds of concealment are irrelevant, though the creature must have line of effect to a creature or object to discern that creature or object. The ability's range is specified in the creature's descriptive text. The creature usually does not need to make Perception checks to notice creatures within range of its blindsight ability. Unless noted otherwise, blindsight is continuous, and the creature need do nothing to use it. Some forms of blindsight, however, must be triggered as a free action. If so, this is noted in the creature's description. If a creature must trigger its blindsight ability, the creature gains the benefits of blindsight only during its turn.

Format: blindsight 60 ft.; Location: Senses.

Breath Weapon (Su): Some creatures can exhale a cone, line, or cloud of energy or other magical effects. A breath weapon attack usually deals damage and is often based on some type of energy. Breath weapons allow a Reflex save for half damage (DC 10 + 1/2 breathing creature's racial HD + breathing creature's Con modifier; the exact DC is given in the creature's descriptive text). A creature is immune to its own breath weapon unless otherwise noted. Some breath weapons allow a Fortitude save or a Will save instead of a Reflex save. Each breath weapon also includes notes on how often it can be used, even if this number is limited in times per day.

Format: breath weapon (60-ft. cone, 8d6 fire damage, Reflex DC 20 for half, usable every 1d4 rounds); Location: Special Attacks; if the breath is more complicated than damage, it also appears under Special Abilities with its own entry.

Burn (Ex): A creature with the burn special attack deals fire damage in addition to damage dealt on a successful hit in melee. Those affected by the burn ability must also succeed on a Reflex save or catch fire, taking the listed damage for an additional 1d4 rounds at the start of its turn (DC 10 + 1/2 burning creature's racial HD + burning creature's Con modifier). A burning creature can attempt a new save as a full-round action. Dropping and rolling on the ground grants a +4 bonus on this save. Creatures that hit a burning creature with natural weapons or unarmed attacks take fire damage as though hit by the burning creature and must make a Reflex save to avoid catching on fire.

Format: burn (2d6, DC 15); Location: Special Attacks and individual attacks.

Change Shape (Su): A creature with this special quality has the ability to assume the appearance of a specific creature or type of creature (usually a humanoid), but retains most of its own physical qualities. A creature cannot change shape to a form more than one size category smaller or larger than its original form. This ability functions as a polymorph spell, the type of which is listed in the creature's description, but the creature does not adjust its ability scores (although it gains any other abilities of the creature it mimics). Unless otherwise stated, it can remain in an alternate form indefinitely. Some creatures, such as lycanthropes, can transform into unique forms with special modifiers and abilities. These creatures do adjust their ability scores, as noted in their description.

Format: change shape (wolf, beast form I); Location: SQ, and in special abilities for creatures with a unique listing.

Channel Resistance (Ex) A creature with this special quality (usually an undead) is less easily affected by channelled energy. A creature with channel resistance adds the bonus listed for that creature to saves made to resist the effects of channel energy, including effects that rely on the use of channel energy (such as the Command Undead feat).

Format: channel resistance +4; Location: Defensive Abilities.

Constrict (Ex): A creature with this special attack can crush an opponent, dealing bludgeoning damage, when it makes a successful grapple check (in addition to any other effects caused by a successful check, including additional damage). The amount of damage is given in the creature's entry and is typically equal to the amount of damage caused by the creature's melee attack.

Format: constrict (1d8+6); Location: Special Attacks.

Construct Traits (Ex): Constructs are immune to death effects, disease, mind-affecting effects (charms, compulsions, phantasms, patterns, and morale effects), necromancy effects, paralysis, poison, sleep, stun, and any effect that requires a Fortitude save (unless the effect also works on objects, or is harmless). Constructs are not subject to nonlethal damage, ability damage, ability drain, fatigue, exhaustion, or energy drain. Constructs are not at risk of death from massive damage, or knock-out from Wound damage.

Format: construct traits; Location: Immune.

Curse (Su): A creature with this ability bestows a curse upon its enemies. The effects of the curse, including its save, frequency, and cure, are included in the creature's description. If a curse allows a saving throw, it is usually a Will save (DC 10 + 1/2 cursing creature's racial HD + creature's Cha modifier; the exact DC is given in the creature's descriptive text). Curses can be removed through remove curse and similar effects.

Format: Curse Name (Su) Slam—contact; save Will DC 14, frequency 1 day, effect 1d4 Str drain; Location: Special Attacks and individual attacks.

Damage Reduction (Ex or Su): A creature with this special quality ignores damage from most weapons and natural attacks. Wounds heal immediately, or the weapon bounces off harmlessly (in either case, the opponent knows the attack was ineffective). The creature takes normal damage from energy attacks (even nonmagical ones), spells, spell-like abilities, and supernatural abilities. A certain kind of weapon can sometimes damage the creature normally, as noted below.

The entry indicates the amount of damage ignored (usually 5 to 15 points) and the type of weapon that negates the ability.

When a damage reduction entry has a dash (—) after the slash, no weapon negates the damage reduction.

Some monsters are vulnerable to piercing, bludgeoning, or slashing damage. Others are vulnerable to certain materials, such as adamantine, alchemical silver, or cold-forged iron. Attacks from weapons that are not of the correct type or made of the correct material have their damage reduced, although a high enhancement bonus can overcome some forms of damage reduction.

Some monsters are vulnerable to magic weapons. Any weapon with at least a +1 magical enhancement bonus on attack and damage rolls overcomes the damage reduction of these monsters. Such creatures' natural weapons (but not their attacks with weapons) are treated as magic weapons for the purpose of overcoming damage reduction.

Some monsters are vulnerable to good-, evil-, chaotically, or lawfully aligned weapons. When a cleric casts align weapon, affected weapons might gain one or more of these properties, and certain magic weapons have these properties as well. A creature with an alignment subtype (chaotic, evil, good, or lawful) can overcome this type of damage reduction with its natural weapons and weapons it wields as if the weapons or natural weapons had an alignment (or alignments) that matched the subtype(s) of the creature.

A few creatures are harmed by more than one kind of weapon. A weapon that inflicts damage of either type overcomes this damage reduction.

A few other creatures require combinations of different types of attacks to overcome their damage reduction, and a weapon must be both types to overcome this type of damage reduction. A weapon that is only one type is still subject to damage reduction.

Format: DR 5/silver; Location: DR.

Disease (Ex or Su): A creature with this ability causes disease in those it contacts. The effects of the disease, including its save, frequency, and cure, are included in the creature's description. The saving throw to negate the disease is usually a Fort save (DC 10 + 1/2 infecting creature's racial HD + the creature's Con modifier; the exact DC is given in the creature's descriptive text). Disease can be removed through remove disease and similar effects.

Format: Disease Name (Ex) Bite—injury; save Fort DC 15, onset 1d3 days, frequency 1 day, effect 1 Con damage, cure 2 consecutive saves; Location: Special Attacks and individual attacks.

Distraction (Ex): A creature with this ability can nauseate the creatures that it damages. Any living creature that takes damage from a creature with the distraction ability is nauseated for 1 round; a Fortitude save (DC 10 + 1/2 creature's HD + creature's Con modifier) negates the effect.

Format: distraction (DC 14); Location: Special Attacks.

Energy Drain (Su): This attack saps a living opponent's vital energy and happens automatically when a melee or ranged attack hits. Each successful energy drain bestows one or more negative levels (the creature's description specifies how many). If an attack that includes an energy drain scores a critical hit, it bestows twice the listed number of negative levels. Unless otherwise specified in the creature's description, a draining creature gains 5 temporary hit points for each negative level it bestows on an opponent. These temporary hit points last for a maximum of 1 hour. Negative levels remain until 24 hours have passed or until they are removed with a spell, such as restoration. If a negative level is not removed before 24 hours have passed, the affected creature must attempt a Fortitude save (DC 10 + 1/2 draining creature's racial HD + draining creature's Cha modifier; the exact DC is given in the creature's descriptive text). On a success, the negative level goes away with no harm to the creature. On a failure, the negative level becomes permanent. A separate saving throw is required for each negative level.

Format: energy drain (2 levels, DC 18); Location: Special Attacks and individual attacks.

Fast Healing (Ex): A creature with the fast healing special quality regains hit points at an exceptional rate, usually 1 or more wound points per round, as given in the creature's entry. Except where noted here, fast healing is just like natural healing. Fast healing does not restore wound points lost from starvation, thirst, or suffocation, nor does it allow a creature to regrow lost body parts. Unless otherwise stated, it does not allow lost body parts to be reattached. Fast healing continues to function (even at negative hit points) until a creature dies, at which point the effects of fast healing end immediately.

Format: fast healing 5; Location: WP.

Fear (Su or Sp): Fear attacks can have various effects.

* Fear Aura (Su): The use of this ability is a free action. The aura can freeze an opponent (as in the case of a mummy's despair) or function like the fear spell. Other effects are possible. A fear aura is an area effect. The descriptive text gives the size and kind of the area.

Format: fear aura (30 ft., DC 17); Location: Aura.

* Fear Cone (Sp) and Ray (Su): These effects usually work like the fear spell.

If a fear effect allows a saving throw, it is a Will save (DC 10 + 1/2 fearsome creature's racial HD + creature's Cha modifier; the exact DC is given in the creature's descriptive text). All fear attacks are mind-affecting fear effects.

Format: fear cone (50 ft., DC 19); Location: Special Attacks.

Ferocity (Ex): A creature with ferocity is only at risk of knock out from wound damage when it takes a critical hit. The creature is still fatigued normally from wound damage.

Format: ferocity; Location: Defensive Abilities.

Flight (Ex or Su): A creature with this ability can cease or resume flight as a free action. If the ability is supernatural, it becomes ineffective in an antimagic field, and the creature loses its ability to fly for as long as the antimagic effect persists.

Format: fly 30 ft. (average); Location: Speed.

Frightful Presence (Ex): This special quality makes a creature's very presence unsettling to foes. Activating this ability is a free action that is usually part of an attack or charge. Opponents within range who witness the action may become frightened or shaken. The range is usually 30 feet, and the duration is usually 5d6 rounds. This ability affects only opponents with fewer Hit Dice or levels than the creature has. An affected opponent can resist the effects with a successful Will save (DC 10 + 1/2 frightful creature's racial HD + frightful creature's Cha modifier; the exact DC is given in the creature's descriptive text). An opponent that succeeds on the saving throw is immune to that same creature's frightful presence for 24 hours. On a failed save, the opponent is shaken, or panicked if 4 HD or fewer. Frightful presence is a mind-affecting fear effect.

Format: frightful presence (60 ft., DC 21); Location: Aura.

Gaze (Su): A gaze special attack takes effect when foes look at the attacking creature's eyes. The attack can have any sort of effect: petrification, death, and charm are common. The typical range is 30 feet, but check the creature's entry for details. The type of saving throw for a gaze attack varies, but it is usually a Will or Fortitude save (DC 10 + 1/2 gazing creature's racial HD + gazing creature's Cha modifier; the exact DC is given in the creature's text). A successful saving throw negates the effect. A monster's gaze attack is described in abbreviated form in its description. Each opponent within range of a gaze attack must attempt a saving throw each round at the beginning of his or her turn in the initiative order. Only looking directly at a creature with a gaze attack leaves an opponent vulnerable. Opponents can avoid the need to make the saving throw by not looking at the creature, in one of two ways.

* Averting Eyes: The opponent avoids looking at the creature's face, instead looking at its body, watching its shadow, tracking it in a reflective surface, etc. Each round, the opponent has a 50% chance to avoid having to make a saving throw against the gaze attack. The creature with the gaze attack, however, gains concealment against that opponent.

* Wearing a Blindfold: The foe cannot see the creature at all (also possible to achieve by turning one's back on the creature or shutting one's eyes). The creature with the gaze attack gains total concealment against the opponent.

A creature with a gaze attack can actively gaze as an attack action by choosing a target within range. That opponent must attempt a saving throw but can try to avoid this as described above. Thus, it is possible for an opponent to save against a creature's gaze twice during the same round, once before the opponent's action and once during the creature's turn.

Gaze attacks can affect ethereal opponents. A creature is immune to gaze attacks of others of its kind unless otherwise noted. Allies of a creature with a gaze attack might be affected. All the creature's allies are considered to be averting their eyes from the creature with the gaze attack, and have a 50% chance to not need to make a saving throw against the gaze attack each round. The creature can also veil its eyes, thus negating its gaze ability.

Format: gaze; Location: Special Attacks.

Grab (Ex): If a creature with this special attack hits with the indicated attack (usually a claw or bite attack), it deals normal damage and attempts to start a grapple as a free action without provoking an attack of opportunity. Unless otherwise noted, grab can only be used against targets of a size equal to or smaller than the creature with this ability. If the creature can use grab on creatures of other sizes, it is noted in the creature's Special Attacks line. The creature has the option to conduct the grapple normally, or simply use the part of its body it used in the grab to hold the opponent. If it chooses to do the latter, it takes a –20 penalty on its CMA check to make and maintain the grapple, but does not gain the grappled condition itself. A successful hold does not deal any extra damage unless the creature also has the constrict special attack. If the creature does not constrict, each successful grapple check it makes during successive rounds automatically deals the damage indicated for the attack that established the hold. Otherwise, it deals constriction damage as well (the amount is given in the creature's descriptive text).

Creatures with the grab special attack receive a +4 bonus on combat manoeuvre checks made to start and maintain a grapple.

Format: grab; Location: individual attacks.

Immunity (Ex or Su): A creature with immunities takes no damage from listed sources. Immunities can also apply to afflictions, conditions, spells (based on school, level, or save type), and other effects. A creature that is immune does not suffer from these effects, or any secondary effects that are triggered due to an immune effect.

Format: Immune acid, fire, paralysis; Location: Defensive Abilities.

Incorporeal (Ex): An incorporeal creature has no physical body. It can be harmed only by other incorporeal creatures, magic weapons or creatures that strike as magic weapons, and spells, spell-like abilities, or supernatural abilities. It is immune to all nonmagical attack forms. Even when hit by spells or magic weapons, it takes only half damage from a corporeal source (except for channel energy). Although it is not a magical attack, holy water can affect incorporeal undead. Corporeal spells and effects that do not cause damage only have a 50% chance of affecting an incorporeal creature. Force spells and effects, such as from a magic missile, affect an incorporeal creature normally.

An incorporeal creature has no natural armour bonus but has a deflection bonus equal to its Charisma bonus (always at least +1, even if the creature's Charisma score does not normally provide a bonus).

An incorporeal creature can enter or pass through solid objects, but must remain adjacent to the object's exterior, and so cannot pass entirely through an object whose space is larger than its own. It can sense the presence of creatures or objects within a square adjacent to its current location, but enemies have total concealment (50% miss chance) from an incorporeal creature that is inside an object. In order to see beyond the object it is in and attack normally, the incorporeal creature must emerge. An incorporeal creature inside an object has total cover, but when it attacks a creature outside the object it only has cover, so a creature outside with a readied action could strike at it as it attacks. An incorporeal creature cannot pass through a force effect.

An incorporeal creature's attacks pass through (ignore) natural armour, armour, and shields, although deflection bonuses and force effects (such as the spell Shield) work normally against it. Incorporeal creatures pass through and operate in water as easily as they do in air. Incorporeal creatures cannot fall or take falling damage. Incorporeal creatures cannot make trip or grapple attacks, nor can they be tripped or grappled. In fact, they cannot take any physical action that would move or manipulate an opponent or its equipment, nor are they subject to such actions. Incorporeal creatures have no weight and do not set off traps that are triggered by weight.

An incorporeal creature moves silently and cannot be heard with Perception checks if it doesn't wish to be. It has no Strength score, so its Dexterity modifier applies to its melee attacks, ranged attacks, and CMA. Nonvisual senses, such as scent and blindsight, are either ineffective or only partly effective with regard to incorporeal creatures. Incorporeal creatures have an innate sense of direction and can move at full speed even when they cannot see.

Format: incorporeal; Location: Defensive Abilities.

Light Blindness (Ex): Creatures with light blindness are blinded for 1 round if exposed to bright light, such as sunlight or the daylight spell. Such creatures are dazzled as long as they remain in areas of bright light.

Format: light blindness; Location: Weaknesses.

Light Sensitivity (Ex): Creatures with light sensitivity are dazzled in areas of bright sunlight or within the radius of a daylight spell.

Format: light sensitivity; Location: Weaknesses.

Low-Light Vision (Ex): A creature with low-light vision can see twice as far as a human in starlight, moonlight, torchlight, and similar conditions of dim light. It retains the ability to distinguish colour and detail under these conditions.

Format: low-light vision; Location: Senses.

Natural Attacks: Most creatures possess one or more natural attacks (attacks made without a weapon). These attacks fall into one of two categories, primary and secondary attacks. Primary attacks are made using the creature's full base attack bonus and add the creature's full Strength bonus on damage rolls. Secondary attacks are made using the creature's base attack bonus –5 and add only 1/2 the creature's Strength bonus on damage rolls. If a creature has only one natural attack, it is always made using the creature's full base attack bonus and adds 1-1/2 the creature's Strength bonus on damage rolls. This increase does not apply if the creature has multiple attacks but only takes one. If a creature has only one type of attack, but has multiple attacks per round, that attack is treated as a primary attack, regardless of its type. Table: Natural Attacks by Size lists some of the most common types of natural attacks and their classifications.

Some creatures treat one or more of their attacks differently, such as dragons, which always receive 1-1/2 times their Strength bonus on damage rolls with their bite attack. These exceptions are noted in the creature's description.

Creatures with natural attacks and attacks made with weapons can use both as part of a full attack action (although often a creature must forgo one natural attack for each weapon clutched in that limb, be it a claw, tentacle, or slam). Such creatures attack with their weapons normally but treat all of their natural attacks as secondary attacks during that attack, regardless of the attack's original type.

Table: Natural Attacks by Size

Natural AttackBase Damage by Size* Damage TypeAttack Type
FineDim.TinySmallMediumLargeHugeGarg.Col.
Bite11d21d31d41d61d82d62d84d6B/S/PPrimary
Claw11d21d31d41d61d82d62d8B/SPrimary
Gore11d21d31d41d61d82d62d84d6PPrimary
Hoof, Tentacle, Wing11d21d31d41d61d82d62d8BSecondary
Pincers, Tail Slap11d21d31d41d61d82d62d84d6BSecondary
Slam11d21d31d41d61d82d62d8BPrimary
Sting11d21d31d41d61d82d62d8PPrimary
Talons11d21d31d41d61d82d62d8SPrimary
Other11d21d31d41d61d82d62d8B/S/PSecondary

*Individual creatures vary from this value as appropriate.

The Damage Type column refers to the sort of damage that the natural attack typically deals: bludgeoning (B), slashing (S), or piercing (P). Some attacks deal damage of more than one type, depending on the creature. In such cases all the damage is considered to be of all listed types for the purpose of overcoming damage reduction.

Some fey, humanoids, monstrous humanoids, and outsiders do not possess natural attacks. These creatures can make unarmed strikes, but treat them as weapons for the purpose of determining attack bonuses, and they must use the two-weapon fighting rules when making attacks with both hands. See Table: Natural Attacks by Size for typical damage values for natural attacks by creature size.

Format: bite +5 (1d6+1), 2 claws +5 (1d4+2), 4 tentacles +0 (1d4+1); Location: Melee and Ranged.

Paralysis (Ex or Su): This special attack renders the victim immobile. Paralyzed creatures cannot move, speak, or take any physical actions. The creature is rooted to the spot, frozen and helpless. Paralysis works on the body, and a character can usually resist it with a Fortitude saving throw (DC 10 + 1/2 paralyzing creature's racial HD + paralyzing creature's Con modifier; the DC is given in the creature's description). Unlike hold person and similar effects, a paralysis effect does not allow a new save each round. A winged creature flying in the air at the time that it is paralyzed cannot flap its wings and falls. A swimmer can't swim and may drown. The duration of the paralysis varies and is included in the creature's description.

Format: paralysis (1d4 rounds, DC 18); Location: Special Attacks and individual attacks.

Petrification (Su): A creature with this special attack not only paralyses its victims (see Paralysis), but may literally turn them to stone. Creatures affected by a petrification attack are initially paralysed, with all the associated negative effects. This paralysis remains until 24 hours have passed or until it is removed with a spell. If the paralysis is not removed before 24 hours have passed, the affected creature must attempt a Fortitude save (the exact DC is given in the creature's descriptive text). On a success, the creature's condition does not worsen - the paralysis remains indefintiely (and can be removed through the usual magical means), but with no harm to the creature. On a failure, the creature become petrified.

Format: petrification (DC 15); Location: Special Attacks and individual attacks.

Plant Traits (Ex) Plants are immune to all mind-affecting effects (charms, compulsions, morale effects, patterns, and phantasms), paralysis, poison, polymorph, sleep, and stun.

Format: plant traits; Location: Immune.

Poison (Ex or Su): A creature with this ability can poison those it attacks. The effects of the poison, including its save, frequency, and cure, are included in the creature's description. The saving throw to resist a poison is usually a Fort save (DC 10 + 1/2 poisoning creature's racial HD + creature's Con modifier; the exact DC is given in the creature's descriptive text). Poisons can be removed through neutralize poison and similar effects.

Format: Poison Name (Ex) Sting — injury; save Fort DC 22, frequency 1/round for 6 rounds, effect 1d4 Con, cure 2 consecutive saves; Location: Special Attacks and individual attacks.

Pounce (Ex): When a creature with this special attack makes a charge, it can make a full attack (including rake attacks if the creature also has the rake ability).

Format: pounce; Location: Special Attacks.

Powerful Charge (Ex): When a creature with this special attack makes a charge, its attack deals extra damage in addition to the normal benefits and hazards of a charge. The attack and amount of damage from the attack is given in the creature's description.

Format: powerful charge (gore, 4d8+24); Location: Special Attacks.

Pull (Ex): A creature with this ability can choose to make a free combat manoeuvre check with a successful attack. If successful, this check pulls a creature closer. The distance pulled is set by this ability. The type of attack that causes the pull and the distance pulled are included in the creature's description. This ability only works on creatures of a size equal to or smaller than the pulling creature. Creatures pulled in this way do not provoke attacks of opportunity and stop if the pull would move them into a solid object or creature.

Format: pull (tentacle, 5 feet); Location: Special Attacks and individual attacks.

Push (Ex): A creature with the push ability can choose to make a free combat manoeuvre check with a certain successful attack (often a slam attack). If successful, this check pushes a creature directly away as with a bull rush, but the distance moved is set by this ability. The type of attack that causes the push and the distance pushed are included in the creature's description. This ability only works on creatures of a size equal to or smaller than the pushing creature. Creatures pushed in this way do not provoke attacks of opportunity and stop if the push would move them into a solid object or creature.

Format: push (slam, 10 feet); Location: Special Attacks and individual attacks.

Rake (Ex): A creature with this special attack gains extra natural attacks under certain conditions, typically when it grapples its foe. In addition to the options available to all grapplers, a monster with the rake ability gains two free claw attacks that it can use only against a grappled foe. The bonus and damage caused by these attacks is included in the creature's description. A monster with the rake ability must begin its turn already grappling to use its rake—it can't begin a grapple and rake in the same turn.

Format: rake (2 claws +8, 1d4+2); Location: Special Attacks.

Regeneration (Ex): A creature with this ability is difficult to kill. Creatures with regeneration heal damage at a fixed rate, as with fast healing, but they cannot die as long as their regeneration is still functioning (although creatures with regeneration may still be knocked out from taking wounds, and will fall unconscious when their wound points are below 0). Certain attack forms, typically fire and acid, cause a creature's regeneration to stop functioning on the round following the attack. During this round, the creature does not heal any damage and can die normally. The creature's descriptive text describes the types of damage that cause the regeneration to cease functioning.

Attack forms that can't deal wound point damage are not healed by regeneration. Regeneration also does not restore wound points lost from starvation, thirst, or suffocation. Regenerating creatures can regrow lost portions of their bodies and can reattach severed limbs or body parts if they are brought together within 1 hour of severing. Severed parts that are not reattached wither and die normally.

A creature must have a Constitution score to have the regeneration ability.

Format: regeneration 5 (fire, acid); Location: WP.

Rend (Ex): If it hits with two or more natural attacks in 1 round, a creature with the rend special attack can cause tremendous damage by latching onto the opponent's body and tearing flesh. This attack deals an additional amount of damage, but no more than once per round. The type of attacks that must hit and the additional damage are included in the creature's description. The additional damage is usually equal to the damage caused by one of the attacks plus 1-1/2 the creature's Strength bonus.

Format: rend (2 claws, 1d8+9); Location: Special Attacks.

Resistance (Ex): A creature with this special quality ignores some damage of the indicated type each time it takes damage of that kind (commonly acid, cold, electricity, or fire). The entry indicates the amount and type of damage ignored.

Format: Resist acid 10; Location: Defensive Abilities.

Rock Catching (Ex): The creature (which must be of at least Large size) can catch Small, Medium, or Large rocks (or projectiles of similar shape). Once per round, a creature that would normally be hit by a rock can make a Reflex save to catch it as a free action. The DC is 15 for a Small rock, 20 for a Medium one, and 25 for a Large one. (If the projectile provides a magical bonus on attack rolls, the DC increases by that amount.) The creature must be aware of the attack in order to make a rock catching attempt.

Format: rock catching; Location: Defensive Abilities.

Rock Throwing (Ex): This creature is an accomplished rock thrower and has a +1 racial bonus on attack rolls with thrown rocks. A creature can hurl rocks up to two categories smaller than its size; for example, a Large hill giant can hurl Small rocks. A “rock” is any large, bulky, and relatively regularly shaped object made of any material with a hardness of at least 5. The creature can hurl the rock up to five range increments. The size of the range increment varies with the creature. Damage from a thrown rock is generally twice the creature's base slam damage plus 1-1/2 its Strength bonus.

Format: rock throwing (120 ft.); Location: Special Attacks (damage is listed in Ranged attack).

Scent (Ex): This special quality allows a creature to detect approaching enemies, sniff out hidden foes, and track by sense of smell. Creatures with the scent ability can identify familiar odours just as humans do familiar sights.

The creature can detect opponents within 30 feet by sense of smell. If the opponent is upwind, the range increases to 60 feet; if downwind, it drops to 15 feet. Strong scents, such as smoke or rotting garbage, can be detected at twice the ranges noted above. Overpowering scents, such as skunk musk or troglodyte stench, can be detected at triple normal range.

When a creature detects a scent, the exact location of the source is not revealed—only its presence somewhere within range. The creature can take a move action to note the direction of the scent. When the creature is within 5 feet of the source, it pinpoints the source's location.

A creature with the scent ability can follow tracks by smell, making a Wisdom (or Survival) check to find or follow a track. The typical DC for a fresh trail is 10 (no matter what kind of surface holds the scent). This DC increases or decreases depending on how strong the quarry's odour is, the number of creatures, and the age of the trail. For each hour that the trail is cold, the DC increases by 2. The ability otherwise follows the rules for the Survival skill. Creatures tracking by scent ignore the effects of surface conditions and poor visibility.

Format: scent; Location: Senses.

Spell-Like Abilities (Sp) Spell-like abilities are magical and work just like spells (though they are not spells and so have no verbal, somatic, focus, or material components). They go away in an antimagic field and are subject to spell resistance if the spell the ability is based on would be subject to spell resistance.

A spell-like ability usually has a limit on how often it can be used. A constant spell-like ability or one that can be used at will has no use limit; unless otherwise stated, a creature can only use a constant spell-like ability on itself. Reactivating a constant spell-like ability is a swift action. Using all other spell-like abilities is a standard action unless noted otherwise, and doing so provokes attacks of opportunity. It is possible to make a concentration check to use a spell-like ability defensively and avoid provoking an attack of opportunity, just as when casting a spell. A spell-like ability can be disrupted just as a spell can be. Spell-like abilities cannot be used to counterspell, nor can they be counterspelled.

For creatures with spell-like abilities, a designated caster level defines how difficult it is to dispel their spell-like effects and to define any level-dependent variables (such as range and duration) the abilities might have. The creature's caster level never affects which spell-like abilities the creature has; sometimes the given caster level is lower than the level a spellcasting character would need to cast the spell of the same name. If no caster level is specified, the caster level is equal to the creature's Hit Dice. The saving throw (if any) against a spell-like ability is 10 + the level of the spell the ability resembles or duplicates + the creature's Charisma modifier.

Format: At will — burning hands (DC 13); Location: Spell-Like Abilities.

Spell Resistance (Ex): A creature with spell resistance can avoid the effects of spells and spell-like abilities that directly affect it. To determine if a spell or spell-like ability works against a creature with spell resistance, the caster must make a caster level check (1d20 + caster level). If the result equals or exceeds the creature's spell resistance, the spell works normally, although the creature is still allowed a saving throw.

Format: SR 18; Location: Defensive Abilities.

Stench (Ex): A creature with the stench special ability secretes an oily chemical that nearly every other creature finds offensive. All living creatures (except those with the stench special ability) within 30 feet must succeed on a Fortitude save (DC 10 + 1/2 stench creature's racial HD + stench creature's Con modifier; the exact DC is given in the creature's descriptive text) or be sickened. The duration of the sickened condition is given in the creature's descriptive text. Creatures that successfully save cannot be affected by the same creature's stench for 24 hours. A delay poison or neutralize poison spell removes the effect from the sickened creature. Creatures with immunity to poison are unaffected, and creatures resistant to poison receive their normal bonus on their saving throws.

Format: stench (DC 15, 10 rounds); Location: Aura.

Summon (Sp): A creature with the summon ability can summon other specific creatures of its kind. Often this ability has only a limited chance of success (as specified in the creature's entry). Roll d%: On a failure, no creature answers the summons.

Format: 1/day—summon (level 4, 1 hezrou 35%); Location: Spell-Like Abilities.

Swallow Whole (Ex): If a creature with this special attack begins its turn with an opponent grappled in its mouth (see Grab), it can attempt a new combat manoeuvre check (as though attempting to pin the opponent). If it succeeds, it swallows its prey, and the opponent takes bite damage. Unless otherwise noted, the opponent can be up to one size category smaller than the swallowing creature. Being swallowed causes a creature to take damage each round. The amount and type of damage varies and is given in the creature's statistics. A swallowed creature keeps the grappled condition, while the creature that did the swallowing does not. A swallowed creature can try to cut its way free with any light slashing or piercing weapon (the amount of cutting damage required to get free is equal to 1/10 the creature's total hit points), or it can just try to escape the grapple. The Armor Class of the interior of a creature that swallows whole is normally 10 + 1/2 its natural armor bonus, with no modifiers for size or Dexterity. If a swallowed creature cuts its way out, the swallowing creature cannot use swallow whole again until the damage is healed. If the swallowed creature escapes the grapple, success puts it back in the attacker's mouth, where it may be bitten or swallowed again.

Format: swallow whole (5d6 acid damage, AC 15, 18 hp); Location: Special Attacks.

Telepathy (Su): The creature can mentally communicate with any other creature within a certain range (specified in the creature's entry, usually 100 feet) that has a language. It is possible to address multiple creatures at once telepathically, although maintaining a telepathic conversation with more than one creature at a time is just as difficult as simultaneously speaking and listening to multiple people at the same time.

Format: telepathy 100 ft.; Location: Languages.

Trample (Ex) As a full-round action, a creature with the trample ability can attempt to overrun any creature that is at least one size category smaller than itself. This works just like the overrun combat maneuver, but the trampling creature does not need to make a check, it merely has to move over opponents in its path. Targets of a trample take an amount of damage equal to the trampling creature's slam damage + 1-1/2 times its Str modifier. Targets of a trample can make an attack of opportunity, but at a –4 penalty. If targets forgo an attack of opportunity, they can attempt to avoid the trampling creature and receive a Reflex save to take half damage. The save DC against a creature's trample attack is 10 + 1/2 creature's HD + creature's Str modifier (the exact DC is given in the creature's descriptive text). A trampling creature can only deal trampling damage to each target once per round, no matter how many times its movement takes it over a target creature.

Format: trample (2d6+9, DC 20); Location: Special Attacks.

Tremorsense (Ex): A creature with tremorsense is sensitive to vibrations in the ground and can automatically pinpoint the location of anything that is in contact with the ground. Aquatic creatures with tremorsense can also sense the location of creatures moving through water. The ability's range is specified in the creature's descriptive text.

Format: tremorsense 60 ft.; Location: Senses.

Trip (Ex): A creature with the trip special attack can attempt to trip its opponent as a free action without provoking an attack of opportunity if it hits with the specified attack. If the attempt fails, the creature is not tripped in return.

Format: trip (bite); Location: individual attacks.

Undead Traits (Ex): Undead are immune to death effects, disease, mind-affecting effects (charms, compulsions, morale effects, phantasms, and patterns), paralysis, poison, sleep, stun, and any effect that requires a Fortitude save (unless the effect also works on objects or is harmless). Undead are not subject to ability drain, energy drain, or nonlethal damage. Undead are immune to damage or penalties to their physical ability scores (Strength, Dexterity, and Constitution), as well as to fatigue and exhaustion effects. Undead are not at risk of death from massive damage.

Format: undead traits; Location: Immune.

Vulnerabilties (Ex or Su): A creature with vulnerabilities takes half again as much damage (+50%) from a specific energy type, regardless of whether a saving throw is allowed or if the save is a success or failure. Creatures with a vulnerability that is not an energy type instead take a –4 penalty on saves against spells and effects that cause or use the listed vulnerability (such as spells with the light descriptor). Some creatures might suffer additional effects, as noted in their descriptions.

Format: vulnerability to fire; Location: Weaknesses.

Web (Ex): Creatures with the web ability can use webs to support themselves and up to one additional creature of the same size. In addition, such creatures can throw a web up to eight times per day. This is similar to an attack with a net but has a maximum range of 50 feet, with a range increment of 10 feet, and is effective against targets up to one size category larger than the web spinner. An entangled creature can escape with a successful Escape Artist check or burst the web with a Strength check. Both are standard actions with a DC equal to 10 + 1/2 creature's HD + creature's Con modifier. Attempts to burst a web by those caught in it suffer a –4 penalty.

Web spinners can create sheets of sticky webbing up to three times their size. They usually position these sheets to snare flying creatures but can also try to trap prey on the ground. Approaching creatures must succeed on a DC 20 Perception check to notice a web; otherwise they stumble into it and become trapped as though by a successful web attack. Attempts to escape or burst the webbing gain a +5 bonus if the trapped creature has something to walk on or grab while pulling free. Each 5-foot-square section of web has a number of hit points equal to the Hit Dice of the creature that created it and DR 5/—.

A creature can move across its own web at its climb speed and can pinpoint the location of any creature touching its web.

Format: web (+8 ranged, DC 16, 5 WP); Location: Special Attacks.

Whirlwind (Su): Some creatures can transform themselves into whirlwinds and remain in that form for up to 1 round for every 2 HD they have. If the creature has a fly speed, it can continue to fly at that same speed while in whirlwind form, otherwise it gains a fly speed equal to its base land speed (average maneuverability) while in whirlwind form.

The whirlwind is always 5 feet wide at its base, but its height and width at the top vary from creature to creature (minimum 10 feet high). A whirlwind's width at its peak is always equal to half of its height. The creature controls the exact height, but it must be at least 10 feet high.

The whirlwind form does not provoke attacks of opportunity, even if the creature enters the space another creature occupies. Another creature might be caught in the whirlwind if it touches or enters the whirlwind, or if the whirlwind moves into or through a creature's space. A creature in whirlwind form cannot make its normal attacks and does not threaten the area around it.

Creatures one or more size categories smaller than the whirlwind might take damage when caught in the whirlwind (generally damage equal to the monster's slam attack for a creature of its size) and may be lifted into the air. An affected creature must succeed on a Reflex save (DC 10 + half monster's HD + the monster's Strength modifier) when it comes into contact with the whirlwind or take damage as if it were hit by the whirlwind creature's slam attack. It must also succeed on a second Reflex save or be picked up bodily and held suspended in the powerful winds, automatically taking the indicated damage each round. A creature that can fly is allowed a Reflex save each round to escape the whirlwind. The creature still takes damage but can leave if the save is successful.

Creatures trapped in the whirlwind cannot move except to go where the whirlwind carries them or to escape the whirlwind. Trapped creatures can otherwise act normally, but must succeed on a concentration check (DC 15 + spell level) to cast a spell. Creatures caught in the whirlwind take a –4 penalty to Dexterity and a –2 penalty on attack rolls. The whirlwind can have only as many creatures trapped inside at one time as will fit inside the whirlwind's volume. The whirlwind can eject any carried creatures whenever it wishes as a free action, depositing them in its space.

If the whirlwind's base touches the ground, it creates a swirling cloud of debris. This cloud is centered on the creature and has a diameter equal to half the whirlwind's height. The cloud obscures all vision, including darkvision, beyond 5 feet. Creatures 5 feet away have concealment, while those farther away have total concealment. Those caught in the cloud of debris must succeed on a concentration check (DC 15 + spell level) to cast a spell.

Format: whirlwind (3/day, 10–30 ft. high, 1d6+6 damage, DC 15); Location: Special Attacks.

Monster Feats

FIXME

Most of the following feats apply specifically to monsters, although some player characters might qualify for them (particularly Craft Construct).

Ability Focus

One of this creature's special attacks is particularly difficult to resist.

Prereq

uisite: Special attack.

Benefit: Choose one of the creature's special attacks. Add +2 to the DC for all saving throws against the special attack on which the creature focuses.

Special: A creature can gain this feat multiple times. Its effects do not stack. Each time the creature takes the feat, it applies to a different special attack.

Awesome Blow (Combat)

This creature can send opponents flying.

Prerequisites: Str 25, Power Attack, Improved Bull Rush, size Large or larger.

Benefit: As a standard action, the creature may perform an awesome blow combat maneuver. If the creature's maneuver succeeds against a corporeal opponent smaller than itself, its opponent takes damage (typically slam damage plus Strength bonus) and is knocked flying 10 feet in a direction of the attacking creature's choice and falls prone. The attacking creature can only push the opponent in a straight line, and the opponent can't move closer to the attacking creature than the square it started in. If an obstacle prevents the completion of the opponent's move, the opponent and the obstacle each take 1d6 points of damage, and the opponent is knocked prone in the space adjacent to the obstacle.

Craft Construct (Item Creation)

You can create construct creatures like golems.

Prerequisites: Caster level 5th, Craft Magic Arms and Armor, Craft Wondrous Item.

Benefit: You can create any construct whose prerequisites you meet. The act of animating a construct takes one day for each 1,000 gp in its market price. To create a construct, you must use up raw materials costing half of its base price, plus the full cost of the basic body created for the construct. Each construct has a special section that summarizes its costs and other prerequisites. A newly created construct has average hit points for its Hit Dice.

Empower Spell-Like Ability

One of this creature's spell-like abilities is particularly potent and powerful.

Prerequisite: Spell-like ability at caster level 6th or higher.

Benefit: Choose one of the creature's spell-like abilities, subject to the restrictions below. The creature can use that ability as an empowered spell-like ability three times per day (or less, if the ability is normally usable only once or twice per day).

When a creature uses an empowered spell-like ability, all variable, numeric effects of the spell-like ability are increased by half (+50%). Saving throws and opposed rolls are not affected. Spell-like abilities without random variables are not affected.

The creature can only select a spell-like ability duplicating a spell with a level less than or equal to 1/2 its caster level (round down) – 2. For a summary, see the table in the description of the Quicken Spell-Like Ability.

Special: This feat can be taken multiple times. Each time it is taken, the creature can apply it to a different spell-like ability.

Flyby Attack

This creature can make an attack before and after it moves while flying.

Prerequisite: Fly speed.

Benefit: When flying, the creature can take a move action and another standard action at any point during the move. The creature cannot take a second move action during a round when it makes a flyby attack.

Normal: Without this feat, the creature takes a standard action either before or after its move. Hover

This creature can hover in place with ease and can kick up clouds of dust and debris.

Prerequisite: Fly speed.

Benefit: A creature with this feat can halt its movement while flying, allowing it to hover without needing to make a Fly skill check.

If a creature of size Large or larger with this feat hovers within 20 feet of the ground in an area with lots of loose debris, the draft from its wings creates a hemispherical cloud with a radius of 60 feet. The winds generated can snuff torches, small campfires, exposed lanterns, and other small, open flames of non-magical origin. Clear vision within the cloud is limited to 10 feet. Creatures have concealment at 15 to 20 feet (20% miss chance). At 25 feet or more, creatures have total concealment (50% miss chance, and opponents cannot use sight to locate the creature).

Normal: Without this feat, a creature must make a Fly skill check to hover and the creature does not create a cloud of debris while hovering.

Improved Natural Armor

This creature's hide is tougher than most.

Prerequisites: Natural armor, Con 13.

Benefit: The creature's natural armor bonus increases by +1.

Special: A creature can gain this feat multiple times. Each time the creature takes the feat, its natural armor bonus increases by another point.

Improved Natural Attack

Attacks made by one of this creature's natural attacks leave vicious wounds.

Prerequisite: Natural weapon, base attack bonus +4.

Benefit: Choose one of the creature's natural attack forms (not an unarmed strike). The damage for this natural attack increases by one step on the following list, as if the creature's size had increased by one category. Damage dice increase as follows: 1d2, 1d3, 1d4, 1d6, 1d8, 2d6, 3d6, 4d6, 6d6, 8d6, 12d6.

A weapon or attack that deals 1d10 points of damage increases as follows: 1d10, 2d8, 3d8, 4d8, 6d8, 8d8, 12d8.

Special: This feat can be taken multiple times. Each time it is taken, it applies to a different natural attack.

Multiattack (Combat)

This creature is particularly skilled at making attacks with its natural weapons.

Prerequisite: Three or more natural attacks.

Benefit: The creature's secondary attacks with natural weapons take only a –2 penalty.

Normal: Without this feat, the creature's secondary attacks with natural weapons take a –5 penalty.

Multiweapon Fighting (Combat)

This multi-armed creature is skilled at making attacks with multiple weapons.

Prerequisites: Dex 13, three or more hands.

Benefit: Penalties for fighting with multiple weapons are reduced by –2 with the primary hand and by –6 with off hands.

Normal: A creature without this feat takes a –6 penalty on attacks made with its primary hand and a –10 penalty on attacks made with all of its off hands. (It has one primary hand, and all the others are off hands.) See Two-Weapon Fighting in the Pathfinder RPG Core Rulebook.

Special: This feat replaces the Two-Weapon Fighting feat for creatures with more than two arms.

Quicken Spell-Like Ability

This creature can use one of its spell-like abilities with next to no effort.

Prerequisite: Spell-like ability at CL 10th or higher.

Benefit: Choose one of the creature's spell-like abilities, subject to the restrictions described in this feat. The creature can use the chosen spell-like ability as a quickened spell-like ability three times per day (or less, if the ability is normally usable only once or twice per day).

Using a quickened spell-like ability is a swift action that does not provoke an attack of opportunity. The creature can perform another action—including the use of another spell-like ability (but not another swift action)—in the same round that it uses a quickened spell-like ability. The creature may use only one quickened spell-like ability per round.

The creature can only select a spell-like ability duplicating a spell with a level less than or equal to 1/2 its caster level (round down) – 4. For a summary, see the table below.

A spell-like ability that duplicates a spell with a casting time greater than 1 full round cannot be quickened.

Normal: The use of a spell-like ability normally requires a standard action (at the very least) and provokes an attack of opportunity.

Special: This feat can be taken multiple times. Each time it is taken, the creature can apply it to a different one of its spell-like abilities. Empowered and Quickened Spell-Like Abilities Spell Level Caster Level to Empower Caster Level to Quicken 0 4th 8th 1st 6th 10th 2nd 8th 12th 3rd 10th 14th 4th 12th 16th 5th 14th 18th 6th 16th 20th 7th 18th — 8th 20th — 9th — —

Snatch

This creature can grab other creatures with ease.

Prerequisite: Size Huge or larger.

Benefits: The creature can start a grapple when it hits with a claw or bite attack, as though it had the grab ability. If it grapples a creature three or more sizes smaller, it squeezes each round for automatic bite or claw damage with a successful grapple check. A snatched opponent held in the creature's mouth is not allowed a Reflex save against the creature's breath weapon, if it has one.

The creature can drop a creature it has snatched as a free action or use a standard action to fling it aside. A flung creature travels 1d6 × 10 feet, and takes 1d6 points of damage per 10 feet traveled. If the creature flings a snatched opponent while flying, the opponent takes this amount or falling damage, whichever is greater. Wingover

This creature can make turns with ease while flying.

Prerequisite: Fly speed.

Benefits: Once each round, a creature with this feat can turn up to 180 degrees as a free action without making a Fly skill check. This free turn does not consume any additional movement from the creature.

Normal: A flying creature can turn up to 90 degrees by making a DC 15 Fly skill check and expending 5 feet of movement. A flying creature can turn up to 180 degrees by making a DC 20 Fly skill check and expending 10 feet of movement.

six20 System

620bbestiary.txt · Last modified: 2016/04/20 16:09 (external edit)